Plastic surgery is a sub-specialty of general surgery that focuses on restoring, reconstructing, or otherwise altering the appearance of a patient’s body. Reconstructive surgery and aesthetic surgery are the two primary sub-categories that it might be placed under.
Craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns are all examples of procedures that fall within the category of reconstructive surgery. The goal of cosmetic surgery, also known as aesthetic surgery, is to enhance the look of a patient whereas the goal of reconstructive surgery is to improve the functionality of a portion of the patient’s body.
The term “reshaping” stems from the Greek (v), plastik (tekhn), which literally translates to “the art of modeling” of flexible flesh. The word “plastic” refers to the practice of plastic surgery. This sense was first recorded in the English language in 1598. The term “plastic” was first used in its medical connotation in the year 1839, seventy years before it was first used to refer to an industrial substance derived from petroleum.
The earliest references to treatments for the cosmetic reconstruction of a broken nose may be found in the c.
Egyptian medical document dating back to 1600 BCE and known as the Edwin Smith papyrus. Edwin Smith, an American Egyptologist, was honored with the naming of the first textbook on trauma surgery in his honor.
As early as the first century B.C., the Romans practiced a sort of plastic and aesthetic surgery in which they used relatively simple procedures, such as mending broken ears. As a result of the fact that they did not perform dissections on either humans or animals due to religious beliefs, the totality of their knowledge was derived from the writings of their Greek forebears. In spite of this, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left behind several astonishingly precise anatomical descriptions, many of which are of particular relevance to the field of plastic surgery; for example, his research on the genitalia and the skeleton.
During the Abbasid Caliphate (750 AD), the medical writings of Sushruta and Charaka, which were originally written in Sanskrit, were translated into the Arabic language. Through a series of middlemen, the Arabic translations were eventually brought to Europe. The methods of Sushruta were brought to Italy, where they were studied by the Branca family of Sicily and by Gaspare Tagliacozzi of Bologna.
In order to see rhinoplasties being carried out in India using Indian techniques, British doctors traveled to India. By the year 1794, the Gentleman’s Magazine had published accounts of an Indian rhinoplasty procedure that had been carried out by a Kumhar vaidya.
Joseph Constantine Carpue stayed in India for a total of twenty years in order to research the country’s cosmetic surgery practices. In the year 1815, Carpue was successful in performing the first major operation to be carried out in the Western world. The Western world is responsible for further developing the instruments that are detailed in the Sushruta Samhita.
Sabuncu’s work, as well as his description and categorization of hypospadias, which were published in 1465, were more informative and contemporary. Detailed information on the location of the urethral meatus was provided. In addition to this, Sabuncuoglu provided a description as well as a categorization of ambiguous genitalia.
Heinrich von Pfolspeundt, writing in the middle of the 15th century in Europe, detailed a method “to build a new nose for one who loses it altogether, and the dogs have eaten it.” This method included cutting skin from the back of the arm and suturing it into place. However, due of the inherent risks that come with any kind of surgery, particularly those that are performed on the head or face, this kind of surgery did not become widespread until the 19th and 20th centuries.
In the year 1814, Joseph Carpue was able to successfully execute an operation on a British military commander who had previously suffered the detrimental effects of mercury treatments and had lost his nose as a result. Rhinoplastik was the title of the significant work that the German surgeon Carl Ferdinand von Graefe published in the year 1818. Von Graefe improved upon the Italian approach by performing the procedure using a free skin graft taken from the patient’s arm rather than the traditional delayed pedicle flap.
John Peter Mettauer was the first plastic surgeon in the United States. He is credited with performing the first surgery to correct a cleft palate in 1827 using equipment that he had created himself. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach published Operative Chirurgie in 1845, which was a thorough work on rhinoplasty. In this publication, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach proposed the notion of reoperation to enhance the aesthetic aspect of the nose after it had been repaired. An other instance of reconstructive plastic surgery for the nose that took place in 1884 at Bellevue Hospital was written about in Scientific American.
John Roe, an American otorhinolaryngologist, gave an example of his work in 1891. The subject of his presentation was a young lady on whom he had successfully eliminated a dorsal nasal hump for aesthetic reasons. In 1892, Robert Weir attempted to repair sunken noses using xenografts, sometimes known as duck sternum, but his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful.
The effective use of heterogeneous free-bone grafting to rebuild saddle nose deformities was first recorded in 1896 by German urological surgeon James Israel, and in 1889 by American urological surgeon George Monks. Both surgeons were working in the United States. Jacques Joseph, a German-trained surgeon who specialized in orthopaedics, was the first person to write an account of reduction rhinoplasty in 1898. Nasenplastik and Other Forms of Facial Plastic Surgery was first published by Jacques Joseph in 1928.
Sir Harold Gillies is regarded as the pioneer of contemporary plastic surgery by the majority of medical professionals. During the First World War, he was a New Zealander who worked as an otolaryngologist in London. While treating for troops who had suffered face injuries that were disfiguring, he invented many of the procedures that are used in contemporary facial surgery.
During World War I, he served in the Royal Army Medical Corps as a medical minder. He was stationed in France. After gaining experience in skin grafting while working with the renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin, he convinced the army’s chief surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury ward at the Cambridge Military Hospital in Aldershot.
This hospital was later upgraded to a new hospital for facial repairs at Sidcup in 1917. After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, which included many famous patients, and traveled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide. There, he and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery. More than 11,000 operations were performed on more than 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).
Archibald McIndoe, who was Gillies’ cousin, joined the practice in 1930 and devoted himself to the field of plastic surgery. After the outbreak of World War II, the supply of plastic surgery was primarily broken up amongst the various branches of the military forces, and Gillies and his crew were scattered throughout the globe.
Tommy Kilner, who had worked with Gillies during the First World War and who now has a surgical instrument named after him, the kilner cheek retractor, went to Queen Mary’s Hospital, Roehampton; and Mowlem went to St. Albans. Gillies was sent to Rooksdown House near Basingstoke, which became the principal army plastic surgery unit.
Mowlem was sent to St. Albans. Gillies was sent to Rooksdown House near Bas McIndoe, a consultant with the Royal Air Force, relocated to East Grinstead, Sussex, to establish a Centre for Plastic and Jaw Surgery at the freshly remodeled Queen Victoria Hospital there. There, he treated burns that were quite severe as well as major facial deformity, including the loss of eyelids, which were characteristic of those that were inflicted to aircrew members by burning fuel [citation required].
It is common practice to give credit to McIndoe not only for developing innovative methods for the treatment of severely burned faces and hands but also for recognizing the significance of the importance of the rehabilitation of the casualties and, in particular, the process of social reintegration back into normal life.
He got rid of the patients’ “convalescent uniforms” and allowed them to continue to wear the uniforms they had worn in the military instead. Along with the assistance of his two close friends, Neville and Elaine Blond, he was successful in persuading the community members to assist the sick and welcome them into their homes. The employees referred to McIndoe as “The Boss” or “The Maestro,” and he continued to refer to his subordinates as “his guys.” [Citation required]
His other important work included the development of the walking-stalk skin graft and the discovery that immersion in saline promoted healing as well as improved survival rates for patients with extensive burns. This discovery was a fortuitous one drawn from the observation of differential healing rates in pilots who had come down on land and in the sea.
His other important work included the development of the walking-stalk skin graft. The Queen Victoria Hospital in Sussex became home to the Guinea Pig Club as a direct result of his innovative and experimental therapeutic methods. Richard Hillary, Bill Foxley, and Jimmy Edwards were just a few of the more well-known people that were members of his “club.” [citation required]
Plastic surgery is a wide topic that has the potential to be further subdivided. Plastic surgeons in the United States must get certification from the American Board of Plastic Surgery in order to practice. Some of the following are considered to be subspecialties of plastic surgery:
A significant part of plastic surgery is known as aesthetic surgery, which may refer to either procedures performed on the face or the body. Plastic surgeons use aesthetic surgical concepts into all aspects of reconstructive surgery, as well as stand-alone treatments designed to enhance patients’ overall physical presentation.
In most cases, there are two stages involved in the treatment of burns. The therapy that is administered soon after a burn is known as acute burn surgery. After the burn wounds have fully recovered, reconstructive surgery may be performed on the patient.
Craniofacial surgery may be broken down into two categories: that which is performed on children and that which is performed on adults. Treatment of congenital abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues, such as cleft lip and palate, microtia, craniosynostosis, and pediatric fractures, is the primary focus of pediatric craniofacial surgery.
Adult craniofacial surgery focuses mostly on corrective procedures, such as reconstructive procedures after cancer treatment or injuries, as well as revision procedures, orthognathic surgery, and face feminization surgery. Craniofacial surgery should play a significant role in the curriculum of every plastic surgery residency program. A craniofacial fellowship is a means via which one might gain further training and subspecialization. Maxillofacial surgeons are also qualified to perform procedures referred to as craniofacial surgery.
Ethnic plastic surgery refers to the practice of undergoing cosmetic surgery in order to modify one’s appearance in order to “pass” as a member of another ethnic group.
The treatment of acute injuries and chronic disorders of the hand and wrist, as well as the repair of congenital deformities of the upper extremities and peripheral nerve issues, are the primary focuses of hand surgery (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome). Plastic surgeons must be proficient in both microsur gery and hand sur gery in order to transplant severed extremities.
Hand surgery is an essential component of plastic sur gery residency training. Surgeons who specialize in orthopedic sur gery and general surgery also do procedures in the area of hand surgery. The production of scar tissue after sur gery may be troublesome for the delicate hand, and if it is severe enough, it can cause a loss of dexterity and finger function. There have been instances of women undergoing surgery on their hands in order to address perceived faults in the interest of producing the ideal photograph of an engagement ring.
Reconstructing lost tissue often requires the use of microsurgery, which involves moving a portion of healthy tissue to the area that needs rebuilding and reconnecting blood arteries in the area. Breast reconstruction, head and neck reconstruction, hand surgery/replantation, and brachial plexus surgery are all popular subspecialties in the field of plastic surgery.
In the realm of medicine, children often encounter challenges that are radically different from those faced by adult patients. Pediatric plastic surgeons are the experts when it comes to treating disorders that are specific to children and specialize in treating conditions that are present at birth, such as birth abnormalities or syndromes.
Conditions such as craniofacial malformations, syndactyly (also known as “webbing of the fingers and toes”), polydactyly (also known as “excess fingers and toes at birth”), cleft lip and palate, and congenital hand deformities are among the most frequent conditions that pediatric plastic surgeons address.
A practice that began in the early 20th century and continued until the mid-1990s was the practice of performing plastic surgery on members of a jailed population in the hopes of lowering their risk of recidivism. apart from the operation that was done to fulfill a medical need.
The transfer of skin tissue, also known as skin grafting, is a highly frequent technique that is performed in cosmetic surgery. Grafts of skin may be taken either from the patient who needs them or from donors:
Plastic surgery that places an emphasis on careful planning of incisions so that they fall within the line of natural skin folds or lines, appropriate choice of wound closure, use of the best available suture materials, and early removal of exposed sutures so that the wound is held closed by buried sutures is likely to produce favorable outcomes most of the time [original research?
Burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; cancer or tumors; and developmental abnormalities are all examples of conditions that can result in functional impairments that can be corrected through reconstructive plastic surgery. In reconstructive plastic surgery, the objective is to restore both the patient’s shape and their function.
Surgical operations such as the removal of tumors, the healing of lacerations, maxillofacial surgery, scar revision, hand surgery, and breast reduction plasty are among the most popular reconstructive procedures.
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons reports that the number of reconstructive breast reductions performed on women in 2018 was down by 4 percent compared to the previous year. In 2018, there was an 8 percent drop in the number of breast reductions performed on males. 57,535 procedures were carried out in the year 2018.
Other procedures that fall under the category of reconstructive sur gery include the reconstruction of the breast following a mastectomy performed for the treatment of cancer, surgery to correct cleft lip and palate, contracture surgery for burn survivors, and the creation of a new outer ear in patients who were born without one.
When there is no local tissue available, plastic surgeons will employ a technique called microsurgery to transplant tissue in order to cover the defect. Free flaps of skin, muscle, bone, or fat, or any combination of these, can be detached from the body, relocated to another location on the body, and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins as small as one to two millimeters in diameter. This procedure is known as free flap transplantation.
The only objective of cosmetic surgery is to enhance the look of a person and/or remove the visible symptoms of aging. Cosmetic surgery is a kind of elective or voluntary surgery that may be done on otherwise normal portions of the body. Certain aesthetic operations, such as breast reduction, also have a functional purpose and may help alleviate symptoms of pain such as backache and neckache in certain patients.
After a patient has had breast cancer and had a mastectomy, they may also choose to have cosmetic surgery in order to restore the natural form of their breasts, which was altered as a result of the cancer treatment.
Within the borders of the United States alone, almost 16 million cosmetic treatments were carried out in the year 2014. Since the beginning of this century, there has been an approximately twofold increase in the number of cosmetic treatments done in the United States.
In 2014, women had cosmetic treatments at a rate of 92%, which is an increase from 88% in the year 2001. In the year 2020, there were 15.6 million cosmetic treatments done, with nose reshaping, eyelid sur gery, facelift, liposuction, and breast augmentation being the five most prevalent surgeries.
Since 2006, breast augmentation has maintained its position as one of the top five most popular treatments in the field of cosmetic surgery. In the year 2020, saline implants were utilized in just 16% of all breast augmentations, while silicone implants were used in 84% of them. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery examines the data pertaining to thirty-four distinct cosmetic treatments. Nineteen of these treatments are surgical, and include things like facelifts and rhinoplasty.
Botox injections and laser hair removal are examples of the nonsurgical therapies. According to the findings of their study, there were a total of 9,336,814 operations performed in the United States in the year 2010. There were 1,622,290 surgical operations performed out of those totals (p. 5). They also discovered that the vast majority of the operations, 81%, were carried out on persons of the Caucasian race (p. 12).
In 1949, 15,000 people in the United States had plastic surgery operations done, and by 1969, this number had increased to 200,000. The total number of persons involved increased to about a half million. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) estimates that more than 333,000 cosmetic procedures were performed on patients 18 years of age or younger in the United States in 2005. This number is higher than the approximate number of procedures that were performed on patients in the same age range in the previous year.
14,000 in 1996. In 2018, more than 226,994 patients between the ages of 13 and 19 received cosmetic surgery, which is a significant increase from 2010, when there were slightly more than 218,900 patients in the same age category.
Concerns regarding young people undergoing plastic surgery include the financial burden of additional surgical procedures needed to correct problems after the initial cosmetic sur gery, long-term health complications from plastic surgery, and unaddressed mental health issues that may have led to the decision to have sur gery in the first place.
The rising popularity of cosmetic treatments in the United States cuts across racial and ethnic lines, with increases being seen not just among Caucasian Americans but also among African-Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans in addition to Caucasian Americans. Countries such as China and India have emerged as the most lucrative markets for cosmetic surgery in Asia as a result of the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery in the region. In addition, South Korea is becoming increasingly well-known for the proficiency with which it performs facial bone surgeries.
The number of people undergoing plastic surgery is on the rise, having increased by 115% between the years 2000 and 2015. A study from 2021 found that requests for cosmetic procedures had increased significantly since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly due to the increase in videoconferencing; cited estimates include a 10% increase in the United States and a 20% increase increas.
The following are some of the most common aesthetic and cosmetic procedures:
Botox injections, liposuction, eyelid surgery, breast augmentation, nose jobs, and facelifts were the most common surgical procedures performed in 2015. Rhinoplasty, also known as nose reshaping, was the most common cosmetic surgical procedure performed in the United States in 2020, according to the Plastic Sur gery Statistics Report published by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
Blepharoplasty, also known as eyelid surgery, was the second most common cosmetic surgical procedure, accounting for 14% of all procedures. Following liposuction as the second most common treatment was rhytidectomy (also known as a facelift), which accounted for 10% of all surgeries. Rhytidectomy was followed by liposuction, which accounted for 9.1% of all procedures.
Complications, hazards, and reversals are all aspects that need editing.
There is always some danger involved in surgery. A hematoma, nerve damage, infection, scarring, failed implant, or organ damage are all examples of common complications that can arise from cosmetic surgery.
Implants in the breast may have a variety of adverse effects, including rupturing. Eisenberg found that overfilling saline breast implants by 10-13% dramatically decreased the rupture-deflation rate to 1.83% after 8 years after implantation in a study he conducted on 4761 women who had had augmentation mammaplasty. The FDA reported in 2011 that one out of every five patients who had breast implants for the purpose of breast augmentation would need to have them removed within ten years after having them inserted.
Researchers believe that plastic surgery obsession is linked to psychological disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder. This is despite the fact that the media and advertising do play a significant role in the lives of many people, such as by leading people to believe that plastic surgery is an acceptable course of action to change our identities to better suit our preferences. Those who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been shown to have a higher propensity than the general population to seek cosmetic plastic sur gery in order to fix a perceived flaw in their look.
BDD is a disease that causes a person to become “preoccupied with what they consider as faults in their bodies or faces.” On the other hand, when there is a little physical aberration, the individual’s anxiety is significantly excessive. In spite of the fact that just 2% of persons in the United States are affected by body dysmorphic disorder, the condition affects 15% of patients who see dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons.
Patients affected with the disease who want to have cosmetic surgery done on them are dissatisfied with the results of the procedure on average fifty percent of the time. Suicide is a risk for some people who have borderline personality disorder (BDD). Even though many people who struggle with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) look into cosmetic sur gery, these procedures do not treat BDD and, in the long run, can make the issue even worse. In most cases, the psychological cause of the issue cannot be pinpointed, which makes finding an appropriate therapy that much more challenging.
Some people believe that a sub-disorder such as anorexia or muscular dysmorphia might be responsible for the preoccupation or obsession with correcting the region in question. The growing popularity of body and face modification programs like Snapchat and Facetune has been highlighted as a possible source of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).
People who desire plastic sur gery to look like the altered image of themselves that they see while using Snapchat Filters have been described as suffering from a condition known as “Snapchat dysmorphia.” this term came into use quite recently. Instagram has prohibited the use of any augmented reality (AR) filters that show or encourage cosmetic surgery as a means of expressing their disapproval of the harmful trend.
People whose doctors have refused to conduct any more procedures have sometimes resorted to “do-it-yourself” plastic surgery, during which the patients inject themselves while exposing themselves to significant health hazards.